Why is there mucus in my urine?

Mucus in urine is normal and usually nothing serious. However, in certain cases, it can indicate a more severe condition.

Why is there mucus in my urine?
Viktor Simunović, Dr.med.
Dr.med. Viktor Simunović
11 Mar 2024.

Observing mucus in one's urine can be disconcerting, leading to questions regarding its cause and possible implications. This phenomenon can be attributed to a range of causes, from benign physiological processes to more severe health conditions such as urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, or even bladder cancer.

Normal discharge

A certain amount of mucus in urine, or normal discharge, is a typical and often harmless occurrence. It's produced by the urethra and the urinary bladder to maintain their lining and prevent them from drying out. Notably, the amount of mucus in urine can vary from person to person.

However, observing a small amount of mucus in your urine is generally not a cause for concern. It's a natural byproduct of the body's regular functions. It's when individuals consistently notice an increased amount of mucus in their urine that it may indicate potential issues.

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are typically accompanied by increased mucus in urine, signaling potential inflammation or infection in the urinary tract. The body's response to the infection can produce mucus, which can then be excreted along with the urine.

A urine test is required to diagnose a UTI. This involves providing a urine sample that can be analyzed in a lab. The test will reveal if there is an abnormal amount of mucus and if bacteria are causing the infection. If a UTI is confirmed, appropriate treatment can be initiated to manage the infection and reduce the mucus in the urine.


Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can also cause an increase in the presence of mucus in urine, resulting from infections or inflammation in the urinary tract. STDs are severe medical conditions, and if left untreated, they can lead to complications, including kidney damage.

It's important to consult a healthcare professional if you notice any abnormality in your urine. Treatment options vary depending on the specific STD but may include antibiotics or antiviral medications. Regular testing and safe sexual practices can help prevent STDs.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Irritable bowel syndrome is a common gastrointestinal disorder, can also contribute to mucus in urine due to the proximity of the digestive and urinary systems. The inflammation, irritation, and irregular bowel movements associated with IBS can stimulate excess mucus production, one of the key causes of mucus found in urine.

Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease, can also lead to mucus in urine due to its inherent nature of causing excessive mucus production in the digestive tract. The inflammation primarily affects the innermost lining of the colon and rectum, leading to ulcers that secrete mucus.

This mucus may eventually enter the urinary system through a rare complication known as a fistula. A fistula is an abnormal passageway between two organs that are not typically connected, in this case, the colon and bladder. This can result in the passage of mucus and bacteria from the bowel into the urinary tract, causing mucus to appear in the urine.

Kidney stones

Occasionally, mucus in urine can be a symptom of kidney stones, a common urinary system disorder characterized by the formation of hard mineral and salt deposits within the kidneys. These stones can obstruct the urinary tract and hinder urine flow, leading to mucus buildup. This is often accompanied by severe pain in the lower back or abdomen, blood in the urine, and frequent urination.

The exact cause of kidney stones can vary, but they are typically associated with a high-protein diet, dehydration, and certain genetic factors. Treatment primarily involves pain management, increased hydration, and, in severe cases, surgical intervention. If mucus in urine persists along with these symptoms, immediate medical attention is advised.


While less common, mucus in urine can also indicate pregnancy, as the body undergoes various physiological changes during this period. The shift in hormonal balance, primarily the increase of progesterone, can lead to excessive mucus production throughout the body, including the urinary tract. In some cases, this could result in noticeable mucus in urine.

Moreover, the growing uterus can put pressure on the bladder, making it more susceptible to infections. Such infections can cause bladder lining inflammation, leading to mucus secretion in urine. If mucus in urine is accompanied by other symptoms, such as discomfort or frequent urination, it is advisable to seek medical attention to rule out potential complications.

Bladder cancer

In addition to pregnancy, another serious health condition that could result in the presence of mucus in urine is bladder cancer. This condition, which affects the bladder's lining, often causes irritation and inflammation, leading to increased mucus production.

Consequently, this may appear in the urine. While mucus in the urine is not a definitive symptom of bladder cancer, it is a potential sign that should not be overlooked. Other symptoms may include hematuria (blood in the urine), frequent urination, and discomfort during urination.

It is important to note that these symptoms can also indicate less severe conditions, such as urinary tract infections or kidney stones.

How to test for mucus in urine?

Detecting the presence of mucus in urine often involves a thorough urinalysis, a standard laboratory test used to evaluate different components of the urine. This process examines the physical, chemical, and vital properties of urine. A urine sample is collected in a sterile container and assessed visually for color and clarity.

Chemical tests check various parameters, such as pH, protein, and glucose levels. Microscopic examination is important for mucus detection. In this step, a small portion of the urine sample is observed under a microscope. If present, mucus strands may appear as thread-like structures, revealing the potential presence of mucus in the urine.

Possible complications

If left untreated, excessive mucus in urine can lead to several complications, some of which could be severe and adversely affect the urinary system.

One potential risk is the development of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Excessive mucus can foster an environment conducive to bacterial growth, leading to UTIs.

Another potential complication is kidney stones, which may form if mucus accumulates and hardens within the kidneys.

In severe cases, if the underlying cause of mucus in urine is a serious condition like bladder cancer, delayed treatment can result in the disease advancing and spreading.

Finally, chronic urinary problems can lead to a decreased quality of life due to discomfort, pain, and frequent urination.

When to see a doctor?

If you notice mucus in your urine, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as pain, discomfort, or frequent urination, it is advisable to seek medical attention promptly. These symptoms can indicate underlying conditions such as urinary tract infections, kidney diseases, or bladder problems.

A healthcare professional can conduct a thorough examination and appropriate tests to determine the cause. Ignoring these symptoms may lead to complications, making treatment more difficult.

Even without other symptoms, persistent mucus in urine warrants a doctor's visit. Early detection and treatment can prevent serious health problems. Provide your doctor with accurate and detailed information about your symptoms to facilitate an effective diagnosis and treatment plan.

Mucus in urine is normal, but watch for abnormalities

To summarize, the presence of mucus in urine can be an indication of various health conditions ranging from normal physiological processes to serious diseases like bladder cancer. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider, especially when other symptoms are evident. Early detection and treatment can prevent possible complications. Conducting regular check-ups and maintaining a healthy lifestyle to avoid these health issues is essential.

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